‘recycling’ means any recovery operation by which waste materials are reprocessed into products, materials or substances whether for the original or other purposes. It includes the reprocessing of organic material but does not include energy recovery and the reprocessing into materials that are to be used as fuels or for backfilling operations;

Directive 2008/98/EC of The European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives